Alcohols hydroxy derivatives of hydrocarbon compounds that are formed through fermentation of various food items like potatoes, molasses, grains etc. by yeast and some fungi like Rhizopus. Ethyl alcohol or ethanol, methyl alcohol on methanol etc. are different types of alcohols. Ethanol is the principal type of alcohol used for human consumption in the form of various alcoholic beverages. Ethanol is a volatile, inflammable and colorless liquid having its characteristics spirited colour.
Effects Of Alcoholic Addiction
- Effects on health:
- On central nervous system: Alcohol depresses the nervous system. It affects the different centres of brain, at first the cerebrum and then the cerebellum. It interferes normal activities of the nerves. It has sedative, analgesic, hypnotic and anesthetic effects. The following symptoms are generally observed.
- It causes loss of judgement, memory (amnesia), self control, emotional control, blurred double vision.
- It impairs mental alertness, coordination of muscles, sensory perception which results in staggering gait and reflex responses.
- Clear understanding is impaired. Tongue muscles are also affected and incoherent speech.
- Muscular pain, extremities may develop tingling and numbness.
- Headache, drowsiness and apathy.
- In large dosage the person may lose consciousness or may even die.
Under the influence of alcohol, mind and body behaves exactly like an auto vehicle without brakes.
- Gastrointestinal And Metabolic Disorders:
- On Stomach: Alcohol causes irritation of mucosal lining of oesophagus and stomach, often associated with vomiting. High dosage causes gastric ulcers and gastritis that is an inflammation of gastric mucosa.
- On Liver: Alcohol reduces blood sugar level. A part of alcohol is converted into fat which is deposited in the cells of liver, bile passage and over the walls of arteries. With the accumulation of fat, the liver cells fail to produce glycogen, proteins and enzymes. There is little regulation of metabolism processes and it turns into a store house. This is called fatty liver syndrome.
Due to regular alcohol intake later, the liver turns into a fibrous organ. The parenchyma cells of liver are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. It is called cirrhosis of liver. These conditions may lead to cancer of liver.
- Cardiovascular Disorders: Alcohol dilates the blood vessels and the heat generated is quickly lost. Due to constant dilation the blood vessels quickly lose their elasticity and become rigid and brittle. The deposition of alcoholic fat on the wall of blood vessels causes increase in blood pressure. Deposition of fat on heart reduces working capacity of heart. Visit the best cardiac surgeon in India, to get an effective treatment of heart diseases resulting from alcohol consumption.
- Effect On Kidney Or Excretory Disorders: In alcoholics urine becomes hyperosmotic, which disturbs the kidney functions. It inhibits the secretion of antidiuretic hormone, which causes frequent urination or diuresis. It interferes excretion of uric acid that leads to the development of gout.
- Effect on reproductive system: Alcohol delays sexual maturity, causes development of small sex organs, induces sterilization, impotency in males. In females amenorrhea which is absence of menstruation, infertility and spontaneous abortion etc. are noticed.
- Resistance To Diseases: Immunity falls and alcoholics become prone to infections.